University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign


Zoological Pathology Program



Based in Chicago, the Zoological Pathology Program is a unique collaboration between the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine and a number of private and public entities, ranging from zoos to federal wildlife agencies to conservation organizations around the world.



The program has earned an international reputation for excellence in diagnostic service, education of residents and veterinary students, contribution to worldwide conservation efforts, and original scholarship.

ZPP contributes to global conservation efforts through diagnosis and research into wildlife diseases which not only benefit species conservation programs but also enhance the health of domestic animals, humans, and the environment.

Follow the Zoo Path Program on Instagram.


Diagnostic Services and Submission Form

The ZPP is a full-service diagnostic pathology laboratory, specializing in zoo, exotic and wildlife diseases. ZPP provides gross necropsy, full histopathology (including special stains and immunohistochemistry), electron microscopy and cytology services to our clients.


As a unit of the University of Illinois Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, ZPP is fully accredited by the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. Diagnostic pathology is provided on a contract-supported basis to zoos, aquaria, wildlife agencies and other partner institutions. For more information on submission of marine mammal cases for histopathology and a fee schedule, email:


A recent addition and growing component of the program’s service is its Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory, which offers a variety of PCR-based assays available on a fee-for-service basis.


PCR based assays often provide greater sensitivity than traditional microbiological techniques and can be utilized for testing a variety of samples, including fixed tissues. Because PCR assays test for the presence of pathogen nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), the same assay, once validated, can be used in a wide variety of species. Assay development is geared towards our clientele’s needs and new tests are constantly being developed.


Information on currently offered ZPP-MDL tests, submission guidelines and fees can be found on our submission form. You can also directly contact the laboratory at


Click here for the Molecular Diagnostics Submission Form





Scholarship and Outreach

Advancing the field of zoological and wildlife pathology through research is a priority for ZPP. ZPP research interests are wide ranging and the program has published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals.  ZPP faculty are scientific advisors to and experts for a variety of national and international conservation organizations, and contribute to the field of veterinary pathology through service to the American College of Veterinary Pathologists.

Examples of Ongoing ZPP Research Projects:

  • Atoxoplasma infections in passerines
  • Nanniziiopsiaceae fungal infections in chelonians
  • Urogenital tumors in free-ranging California sea lions
  • Risk factors for stress & gastritis in cheetahs
  • Tuberculosis diagnostics for elephants
  • Heart disease in great apes

ZPP residents also contribute to original scholarship through their involvement in the MS program.  Selected recent resident publications:

  • Delaney MA, Terio KA, Colegrove KM, Briggs MB, Kinsel MJ. Occlusive fungal tracheitis in 4 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Vet Pathol 50(1): 172-6, 2013.
  • Kagan RA, Kinsel M, Gloor K, Mylniczenko ND, Langan JN, Farina LL, Terio KA. Morphologic evidence suggestive of hypertension in Western gray kangaroos (Macropus fulginosus). Veterinary Pathology. 46: 977-984, 2009.
  • Landolfi J., Terio K.A. Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Fishing Cats (Prionailurus viverrinus): Pathology and Expression of Cyclooxygenase-1, -2, and p53. Veterinary Pathology. 43:674-681, 2006

Primate Necropsy Manuals (select your language):  

Residency Training Program

ZPP offers a three-year residency training program in anatomic pathology. This program provides the training and experience to prepare residents for careers in zoo, wildlife, avian and or aquatic animal pathology. Residents will be eligible for the anatomic pathology certification examination of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP) and for a master’s degree upon successful completion of the program.


This training program provides exposure to an extraordinary array of species from zoological institutions, local and national wildlife agencies as well as training in domestic animal pathology. PhD training may be pursued after the completion of the three-year residency.


Residents spend the bulk of the first year studying domestic animal pathology in the University of Illinois Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and Department of Pathobiology in Urbana. Residents then rotate to the Chicago area for the final two years to study mostly non-domestic animal pathology. Graduates of the program work in a variety of settings including academia, zoological institutions, private diagnostic laboratories and government agencies.


Position announcements are typically posted in late summer on the ACVP website for positions starting on or about August 1 of the following year. ZPP residency program inquiries can be directed to Dr. Kathleen Colegrove at


Please note the ZPP residency application process is separate from the application process for the anatomic pathology residency offered by the Department of Pathobiology.


Applicants wishing to apply to both programs must submit two separate applications.

Externships for Veterinary Students

Three- to six-week externships are offered for third- and fourth-year veterinary students interested in gaining exposure to all aspects of zoological pathology. Externs conduct gross necropsies and microscopic evaluation of diagnostic cases in conjunction with residents and staff pathologists. Background reading and research for diagnostic cases is expected of externs as is participation in weekly gross and histopathology seminars. Special projects arising from case materials may also be pursued.


Daily schedules are determined by the current day’s caseload. Whenever possible, participation in necropsies is the priority. Teaching sets of classic non-domestic animal gross and histologic lesions are available for study as are copies of important published papers and literature. The ZPP has a full library of reference texts and archives of case material that are available for individual study if interest and time permit.


To apply, students are asked to send a copy of their CV, letter of interest, requested externship dates, and names of three references (letters are not necessary) to Dr. Kathleen Colegrove at Applications will be reviewed on or around February 1, June 1, and October 1 of each year and available slots will be filled based on the strength of the application.


The externship program is highly competitive; available slots are often filled as far as one to two years in advance.

Externship positions are not open to graduate veterinarians. Housing is not provided, although there are several low-cost options in the area.


About the Zoological Pathology Program

The Zoological Pathology Program was started in 1993 with the goal of improving animal health by providing comprehensive diagnostic services to three Chicago institutions: Brookfield Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoo, and Shedd Aquarium.


Over its more than 25-year history, the program has greatly expanded to not only serve those core institutions but also organizations on three continents, ranging from federal wildlife agencies to zoos and conservation organizations. The program has earned an international reputation for excellence in diagnostic service, education of residents and veterinary students, contribution to worldwide conservation efforts, and original scholarship.


ZPP contributes to wildlife conservation and ecosystem health through the study of wildlife disease. Sound diagnostics, education and research directly promote the health and welfare of zoological collections and free-ranging wildlife. By investigating how disease impacts individual animals and populations, threats can be mitigated or better managed. Additionally, knowledge of wildlife diseases can have profound implications for understanding similar diseases in domestic animals and even humans.


Conservation of species and ecosystems requires a multifaceted collaborative approach, and ZPP has numerous national and international collaborators. ZPP faculty have also taught in international training courses to improve local capacity for on-site disease monitoring




Kathleen Colegrove-Calvey, DVM, PhD, Diplomate, ACVP (anatomic), Clinical Associate Professor Jennifer (Jaime) Landolfi, DVM, PhD, Diplomate, ACVP (anatomic), Clinical Assistant Professor


Martha Delaney, DVM, PhD, Diplomate, ACVP (anatomic), Clinical Assistant Professor Karen Terio, DVM, PhD, Diplomate, ACVP (anatomic), Clinical Professor


Mandy Womble, DVM,PhD, Diplomate, ACVP (anatomic), Clinical Assistant Professor    

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Illinois Veterinary Experts Help ID Coronavirus in Bronx Zoo Tiger

Apr 5, 2020 / COVID

Veterinary Pathologist Comments on Stingray Deaths

Aug 14, 2019 / In the News

Chicago Tribune (Aug. 9) – Karen Terio, chief of the University of Illinois program,

said her lab tested the samples and “there was no evidence of anything infectious, contagious or inflammatory.”

New Shell-Eating Fungus Identified in Turtles

Aug 5, 2019 / In the News

The Wildlife Society (Aug. 1) – “By causing damage to the shell, it essentially could be a portal by which bacteria could enter and make an animal sick,” said Karen Terio, a clinical professor and chief of the Zoological Pathology Program at the University of Illinois and co-author of a study published recently in the..